Labor in horticulture usda
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It is a valuable tool to highlight the contribution horticulture growers bring to state-level economies — whether in sales earned or expenses paid for hired labor. The report shows that horticulture production was concentrated in 10 states which, taken together, accounted for 65 percent of all U. Among other findings in the report, the census found that family or individually owned companies account for 53 percent of the total U. Not surprisingly, labor — at 37 percent — is the largest expense category. To view the full report, visit this website. Related Stories.
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PMA Comments on USDA's Agricultural Innovation Agenda
James S. Owen, Anthony V. Boldt, Jennifer Gray, James E. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 1 December ; 37 4 : — Environmental horticulture production EHP generates and employs approximately one-third of all specialty crop revenue and workforce, respectively.
To increase leverage and accumulate more resources for EHP, stakeholder-driven consensus of research priorities needed to be constructed. Therefore, the Horticultural Research Institute led a professionally facilitated stakeholder roundtable discussion to achieve these priorities. Stakeholders identified trends and forces affecting EHP, its current state, a vision, and outcomes needed for success. Through consensus, four equal research priorities were constructed: 1 quantitate and validate the ecosystem services and benefits of plants on human health and wellness, 2 develop innovations in biological, mechanical, and technological systems that provide efficient, productive, and profitable solutions relevant to producer size and segment, 3 evaluate consumer-driven preferences that optimize industry-wide profitability and growth, and 4 solve ongoing and emergent industry challenges.
These priorities and the successful future of EHP will be made possible by strong leaders and advocates positioned throughout industry, successfully communicating the human health, social, and economic benefits of plants, state-of-the-art technological and efficiently-designed systems, and an understanding of current and future consumers.
Index words: forces, greenhouse, innovation, nursery, roadmap, stakeholders, trends, vision. A national cross section of stakeholders, nursery and greenhouse specialty crop producers convened in New Mexico to create a roadmap directing research objectives and public funding for environmental horticulture production EHP.
Scientists and the leadership of the Horticultural Research Institute were present as active listeners to enable reporting of stakeholder findings. Due to their applied nature, however, research findings and their benefits may take years or even decades to be realized because adoption and change lag behind the status quo Alston and PardeyThe roadmap laid out here should be used to direct public nursery and greenhouse specialty crops research funding to maximize ROR across EHP, as well as, provide direction and guidance for other funding agencies to use for determining what stakeholders i.
Environmental horticulture production EHP , comprised of field-grown and container-grown specialty crops produced in greenhouses i. Annual gross sales of EHP are greater than major agronomic crop sectors such as wheat or cotton. EHP involving breeders, garden retailers, distributors, interior and exterior landscape professionals, florists, students, educators, researchers, extension agents, manufacturers, and those who are part of the industry market chain, account for a quarter to one-third of all specialty crop annual revenue and labor in the U.
Stakeholders across EHP, producers and constituents, including allied companies and support networks, have lacked a unified vision to provide a roadmap for future research priorities that can be used to leverage needed resources to direct research, education, extension and outreach Tom Bewick, USDA-NIFA, personal communication.
This is a consequence due to segmentation, regional variation, shifts in desired marketable goods, and constantly emerging challenges e. A decisive way to construct commonalities about the direction for strategic, future research priorities focused on environmental horticulture specialty crops is needed to ensure a competitive industry led by a newly trained, engaged generation of ornamental crop producers, scientists, extension agents, teachers, curators, executive association leaders, policy makers and government agents.
Resources need to be combined, collaborations must construct systems to meet challenges, and innovation needs to revolutionize practices to strategically address the challenges of the next decade. The industry assessment and the resulting broad needs outlined herein provides a roadmap that can unify direction for research dollars to best benefit EHP, including allied suppliers, educational institutions, and retailers.
Additional costs of research include materials and supplies, survey and computing, space and equipment, analyses, and publication and travel to disseminate findings to stakeholders and colleagues.
There are other non-competitive funds directed towards EHP. However, SAES dollars have moderately increased or remained flat relative to increasing operational and employee costs, which is further confounded by the wider disbursement of federal funds by agencies that now include the U. Department of Energy, U. Thus, SAES dollars continue to dilute with increasing amounts allocated to competitive grant programs and decreasing dollars disbursed directly from formula funds Alston and PardeyA roadmap for EHP based on stakeholder involvement, predominantly crop producers, is necessary to justify the dire need to both increase and focus public research dollars in support of EHP.
The current amount of public support described above for research is 0. For institutions and agencies, a roadmap will provide a scaffold for hiring faculty, calibrating curriculum with future trends, and reformulating priorities. Faculty and graduate students will be able to quickly identify research ideas within their expertise and seek funding opportunities to address specific issues identified.
Students would be able to choose majors, minors, and cooperative experiences to tailor their career interests to meet industry needs. Academia and private industry can collaboratively leverage funding to solve stakeholder-driven research objectives.
Furthermore, a roadmap will act as a compass for commodity groups in matters of training and education, as well as funding within respective states.
Private companies can create solutions for priorities identified by working alone or in collaboration with institutions. Policy makers will be more informed of pressing challenges facing a large sector of specialty crop agriculture, the EHP.
Our objective was to combine greenhouse and nursery producers with professional facilitation to reach consensus about the future of EHP research. During the process, the stakeholders in attendance primarily growers , identified current challenges and future opportunities, and developed a vision of what they wanted the industry to look like in the future.
The resulting consensus roadmap to reach that vision articulates those research priorities necessary to achieve the goals and provides context for what aided in the decision-making process of industry participants. The key stakeholder-determined priorities are expected to be used to direct future research, education, training, and outreach efforts of institutions, trade associations, government and private agencies, and policy makers to ensure their long-term vision of funding is focused on EHP viability, profitability, and innovation.
In January , the Horticultural Research Institute HRI , the research-arm of AmericanHort, prioritized funding to convene a process that would develop strategic horticultural research priorities as outlined by Drs. Owen and LeBude strongly encouraged the creation of a document with horticulture industry research priority consensus which could be cited as justification when seeking other multidisciplinary, competitive grants within or outside the USDA or HRI.
Other industries, such as the grape, apple, or citrus industry, succeed in competing for the same funds because they are able to project an industry consensus supporting their proposals.
Jill Calabro and Jennifer Gray of HRI also saw the opportunity in this process to guide internal decision-making and more-closely align their research agenda to the needs of the producers who benefit from their efforts. They led efforts to identify a professional, unbiased moderator, Mitchell Owen Mitchen Incorporated, Raleigh, NC , to facilitate the process. Approximately 80 individuals representing nursery and greenhouse or floriculture production were identified based on their broad knowledge of the industry, industry segment, business size and scope, regional diversity, previous service to the industry, and totality of industry experience and perspective.
Ultimately, approx. A select group of eight participants, labeled industry advocates, were identified to interview eight or more individuals representing A mass market and independent retail, B landscape, and C interior plantscape. Industry advocates provided an oral summary of industry segment responses to all summit participants on the first day of the summit prior to consensus-building exercises.
Inspirational, thought-provoking presentations were given to participants the first day of the summit to aid in broad thinking prior to Mitchen Leadership and Organization beginning professional facilitation.
Modified versions of the Continuous Quality Improvement processes developed in industrial situations to improve employee input and improve quality in manufacturing situations were employed throughout the remainder of the summit. The processes used were designed to ensure data driven, rather than advocacy-based, group consensus decisions. Group affinity diagrams coupled with consensus-building processes provided the body of data, which was generated via individual brainstorming.
This brainstorming process utilized post-it notes and large flip charts to allow all participants to respond to each thematic area of discussion and record input. Additionally, pre-interviews were conducted and used to increase input data quality as well as strengthen the impact of consensus decisions. Pre-interviews consisted of all attendees interviewing five other individuals, not in attendance but within their industry segment, regarding four topics: 1 shifts in the business and external forces that may influence the industry; things the industry, government, allied industries, and universities are doing that 2 contribute to their success or 3 inhibit their success, and 4 describe what great success might look like for a thriving industry.
Sub-groups and duplicative qualitative analysis were embedded in the processes to ensure the strength of findings. Group consensus was facilitated for the following three key areas of interest: 1 external trends and forces that will impact the EHP industry, 2 strengths and weaknesses of the EHP industry, universities supporting the industry, government, and allied industries, and 3 a comprehensive vision for a successful EHP industry.
Following these discussions, the group was facilitated using individuals, small group and ultimately total group consensus of key research priorities for success.
Immediately following the summit, selected industry participants i. Three major themes regarding trends and forces affecting the environmental horticulture industry evolved from the affinity diagrams created by participants.
Consumer trends, global trends, and industry-specific trends were identified along with sub-themes within each. Regarding consumer trends, participants commented that consumer socio-economic demographics are changing.
The basis for this consumer change was perceived to be due to age and disposable income. In general, the perception was the Baby Boomer generation born to has less disposable income to spend on gardening products than Generations X born to or Y born later thanConclusions by Jin et al. They found while most Baby Boomers are gardening hobbyists, they are spending less money on nursery plants than later generations.
Jin et al. Complementary to this trend is the belief that Millennials early in their careers have less disposable income and assets, as well as larger debt obligations. Participants indicated shifts in consumer preferences focused on personal and environmental health, and these preferences will continue to influence purchasing decisions. The overall basis for this shift, according to participants, is that consumers want to take care of themselves and the environment rather than just building an aesthetic landscape.
Participants conveyed that consumer shopping habits have shifted with more demand placed upon faster access to products and services. An instant gratification attitude might stem from the emergence of social media and our ability to instantly share and receive feedback on wants and needs. Consumers expect feedback and responses to their inquiries immediately WertzWhile this shift in consumer expectations is not necessarily a negative aspect, especially for companies that can accommodate their needs, there have been some negative repercussions.
It can also strain some smaller businesses not capable of handling such demands from consumers and can pressure the entire supply chain to react quickly to orders whether business-to-consumer or business-to-business. This results in reduced inventory management, improved cash flow, and reduced culls unused or unwanted plants. However, JIT can adversely create more problems with order fulfillment, offer less room for error, and leave growers susceptible to price volatility from suppliers by purchasing raw materials when needed instead of when the price is optimum.
Industry-specific trends focused heavily on issues related to labor and employment. Industry employment opportunities are evolving towards higher-wage positions as labor availability decreases and desired skill sets diversify. There is an unfavorable perception of employment opportunities in the EHP industry, and a preference for jobs with minimal manual labor by entry level candidates.
This may be due, in part, to the increasing number of people obtaining college degrees. The total number of bachelor's degrees earned in the U. Two industry-specific themes related to the regulatory environment were identified. Many of the regulatory issues raised related to invasive pests and the subsequent quarantine and certification programs that impede the exchange of genetic material, propagules, and liners.
Second, participants believed that state, local, and federal governments are volatile and unpredictable. The root of this problem was speculated to be that fewer decision-makers legislators, regulators are connected to environmental horticulture.
Another industry-specific trend was the manner in which the EHP industry receives educational training, consulting, and research expertise. Universities and related extension services that have historically provided education, research, and outreach services are perceived to be placing fewer resources into EHP programs, and thus are becoming less impactful to the industry personal observation. Concomitant with this, the industry is adopting more of these services from allied industries.
For example, it is very common now for EHP fertilizer or pesticide sales representatives to provide seminars, training, and certified educational units for pesticide application licenses and other programs.
High shipping costs and transportation challenges related to new trucking regulations were identified as major industry-specific trends. Full compliance with electronic logging devices ELDs will be required for commercial carriers inShipping companies are already struggling with an insufficient number of drivers to meet demand, and new ELD regulations will further limit the number of hours that the limited pool of drivers can operate TorsielloPrimary global trends in EHP included climate change and changing technology.
Climate uncertainty and instability could alter plant success locally, requiring shifts in the plant product mix and the inputs needed to produce them. Adaptability of EHP to meet the demands of a changing climate are seen as both a potential problem and opportunity. New technological options are available to augment labor and collect data on product utilization and plant movement through the supply chain and individual operations.
California Agricultural Production Statistics
Check out agricultural labor data and statistics. or regions based on data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) quarterly wage survey.
Agriculture Workers and Employers
This joint guidance for COVID may be adapted by state and local health departments to respond to rapidly changing local circumstances. Added bullet about requirement of masks on public transportation conveyances and transportation hubs. Farm operations vary across regions of the country. This guidance provides a template of action to protect agriculture workers from coronavirus disease COVID Agricultural employers can adapt these recommendations to protect workers at their particular work sites or in specific work operations. Purpose: Agriculture work sites, shared worker housing, and shared worker transportation vehicles present unique challenges for preventing and controlling the spread of COVID Consistent application of specific preparation, prevention, and management measures can help reduce the risk of spreading COVID
DATA AND STATISTICS
Department of Agriculture USDA provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management. The USDA's vision is to expand economic opportunity through innovation, helping rural America to thrive; to promote agriculture production sustainability that better nourishes Americans while also helping feed others throughout the world; and to preserve and conserve our Nation's natural resources through restored forests, improved watersheds, and healthy private working lands. Farm Service Agency FSA Loans FSA makes direct and guaranteed farm ownership and operating loans to family-size farmers and ranchers who cannot obtain commercial credit from a bank, Farm Credit System institution, or other lender. FSA loans can be used to purchase land, livestock, equipment, feed, seed, and supplies. Loans can also be used to construct buildings or make farm improvements.
The Berea College Horticulture Farm, formerly known as the Gardens and Greenhouse, is part of one of the oldest and continuously operating student-led farms in the nation.
MSU-led national cucurbit project reupped for $7.1 million
Jump to Main Content. Federal government websites always use a. This paper first outlines the basic federal requirements for agricultural housing and employment in the Fair Labor Standards Act, Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Act, and highlights the exemptions provided for family farms and small farms. ERS data and analysis on numbers and demographics for hired farmworkers in the U. Department of Labor. Employment and Training Administration.
USDA Pandemic Assistance for Producers
Adapting to endure humanity's impact on the world. Photo by Allef Vinicius on Unsplash. Produced in partnership with NPR Scicommers. The well-being of organic farmworkers is falling to the wayside as we rapidly increase our consumption of these premium products. Nicholas Karavolias. Plant Biology and Agricultural Science. Gleaming organic products have come to occupy an increasingly large portion of grocery store shelves.
On-the-job Training, See How to Become One. Number of Jobs, , , Job Outlook, , 2% (Slower than average). Employment Change.
USDA Announces Additional Assistance for Cattle, Row Crop Producers
Responding online is user-friendly, accessible on most electronic devices, and saves valuable time by calculating totals and automatically skipping questions not applicable to an operation. NASS mailed unique survey codes earlier in December to more than 40, producers who self-reported horticultural activity in the Census of Agriculture. Each producer can use the code to respond more quickly and easily online.
Best Cash Crops for Small Farms
As of , hired farmworkers made upThese workers perform essential daily tasks needed to keep a successful farm running, such as caring for livestock, working in the fields, and maintaining farm machinery. As the population of farm labor continues to decline , primary operators are feeling the pressure to find alternative solutions to keep up with production for the growing demand of fresh produce. The average age of principal operators isAs more operators reach retirement age, there are fewer young farmers coming in to fill their shoes. Farmers under the age of 35 account for only 9 percent of the total population.
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U.S. Department of Agriculture
Jump to navigation. This is not a complete list. The information provided is for educational purposes only. No endorsement is intended nor is discrimination implied against companies or web sites not listed. If you would like your farm listed, please contact vernon.
A Pandemic Note: The underlying study and preparation of this report began in September when global socio-economic conditions were much different from today. While the average annual projections of employment opportunities and qualified graduates in this report are for a five-year span and developed in concert with U. Bureau of Labor Statistics forecasts for , fewer than the average annual number of employment opportunities will be realized inThe project team anticipates expanding employment opportunities in and during the remainder of the period if the pandemic can be controlled.